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СообщениеДобавлено: 01 июн 2012, 00:12 
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Американские ученые недавно обнаружили взаимосвязь между менингиомой и рентгеновскими снимками зубов:
Цитата:
Dental X-Rays and Risk of Meningioma
Elizabeth B. Claus, MD, PhD1,2; Lisa Calvocoressi, PhD1; Melissa L. Bondy, PhD3; Joellen M. Schildkraut, PhD4;
Joseph L. Wiemels, PhD5; and Margaret Wrensch, PhD5,6
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is a consistently identified and potentially modifiable risk factor for meningioma,
which is the most frequently reported primary brain tumor in the United States. The objective of this study was to
examine the association between dental x-rays—the most common artificial source of ionizing radiation—and the risk
of intracranial meningioma. METHODS: This population-based case-control study included 1433 patients who had intracranial
meningioma diagnosed at ages 20 to 79 years and were residents of the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts,
North Carolina, the San Francisco Bay Area, and 8 counties in Houston, Texas between May 1, 2006 and April
28, 2011 (cases). A control group of 1350 individuals was frequency matched on age, sex, and geography (controls).
The main outcome measure for the study was the association between a diagnosis of intracranial meningioma and
self-reported bitewing, full-mouth, and panorex dental x-rays. RESULTS: Over a lifetime, cases were more than twice
as likely as controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.9) to report having ever had a bitewing
examination. Regardless of the age at which the films were obtained, individuals who reported receiving bitewing
films on a yearly basis or with greater frequency had an elevated risk for ages <10 years (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8),
ages 10 to 19 years (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0), ages 20 to 49 years (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6), and ages 40 years (OR,
1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0). An increased risk of meningioma also was associated with panorex films taken at a young age or
on a yearly basis or with greater frequency, and individuals who reported receiving such films at ages <10 years had
a 4.9 times increased risk (95% CI, 1.8-13.2) of meningioma. No association was appreciated for tumor location above
or below the tentorium. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to some dental x-rays performed in the past, when radiation exposure
was greater than in the current era, appears to be associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma.
As with all sources of artificial ionizing radiation, considered use of this modifiable risk factor may be of benefit to
patients. Cancer 2012;000:000–000.VC 2012American Cancer Society.

особенно опасны панорамы до 10 лет...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... 26625/full

:allllkg:


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СообщениеДобавлено: 18 июн 2012, 11:19 
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Только пять процентов менингиом злокачественные. Связь между рентгеном и этой опухолью сомнительна...


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СообщениеДобавлено: 18 июн 2012, 11:40 
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Зарегистрирован: 07 фев 2005, 12:48
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Это исследование очень активно обсуждается в США
телевидение CBS
http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162- ... udy-finds/

ABS
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/GMAHealth/ ... d=16101200

ADA рекомендует делать здоровым детям снимки через 1-2 года, взрослым через 2-3 года.

ADA раскритиковало это исследование
http://www.ada.org/news/6979.aspx
и что данные о рентгеновских снимках основывались на опросах пациентов, а не на фактах,
и что корреляция у прикусных снимков была больше, чем у серии снимков всей полости рта - хотя лучевая нагрузка у серии больше....
Для России актуально то, что клиники не выдают пациентам на руки снимки - в итоге им приходится делать повторные снимки, если они приходят на лечение в другую клинику - надо обязать клиники выдавать копии снимков, чтобы не давать пациентам лишнюю лучевую нагрузку....
:allllkg:


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СообщениеДобавлено: 18 июн 2012, 12:05 
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Это верно: снимки не выдают на руки


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СообщениеДобавлено: 18 июн 2012, 15:46 
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Никсон писал(а):
Это верно: снимки не выдают на руки

А в ЦНИИСе выдают на руки оригиналы на пленке, хотя снимок цифровой - могут и на диск записать орто или телерентгенограмму, и описание...
Я много консультирую и через меня проходит много пациентов, которым не отдали снимок в частной клинике - в итоге они снова делают его у нас...
Думаю, что нужно обязать отдавать копии снимков - это не сложно и бережет здоровье пациента...
:allllkg:


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СообщениеДобавлено: 26 июл 2012, 23:35 
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При рентгеновских стоматологических снимках обязательно должны применятся защитные фартуки для пациента с воротником для защиты щитовидной железы...
Цитата:
June 13, 2012 -- Thyroid collars should be used for all dental x-rays when they do not interfere with the examination, according to a new policy statement issued June 13 by the American Thyroid Association (ATA).




The ATA released the statement to inform the public and healthcare practitioners about how to minimize risks to the thyroid gland associated with radiation exposure from diagnostic medical and dental radiography.

Radiation exposure to the thyroid among both children and adults is currently the strongest known risk factor for thyroid cancer, according to the ATA.

With more than 56,000 cases of thyroid cancer likely to be diagnosed in the U.S. in 2012, the incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing faster than any other cancer, the ATA noted in a press release. Although it is unlikely that radiation exposure is the predominant contributor to this trend, an increase in the use of diagnostic x-rays, particularly computed tomography (CT), is widespread and necessitates the protection of the thyroid gland where possible to diminish thyroid cancer risk.

In a 2005 brochure about thyroid cancer, the ATA stated that "routine x-ray exposure (e.g., dental x-rays, chest x-rays, and mammograms) does not cause thyroid cancer." While scientific knowledge at the time supported this language for the one-time use of the modalities cited, the statement did not take into account repeated exposure through diagnostic x-rays over a patient's lifetime or the increasing use of alternative procedures, such as CT, in which the doses to the thyroid are generally much larger, the association noted.

This prompted the ATA in 2011 to initiate a review of radiation as a cause of thyroid cancer, with the aim of establishing a policy that would state its view on how the exposure of the thyroid to radiation should be minimized.

The first section of the ATA's new policy statement is written for a general audience, while the second section reviews the medical literature supporting the policy. The ATA's chief conclusions and recommendations are as follows:

The risk of thyroid cancer arising from radiation exposure is very strongly dependent on age at exposure. It is only recently that a thyroid cancer risk for exposure after age 15 has been observed. This risk is low, but not absent.

For the purposes of public health planning, most experts and organizations assume that the risks for cancer, including thyroid cancer, are reduced proportionately with the dose.

The necessity of all diagnostic x-rays should be evaluated before they are performed. This must include the potential risks as well as the potential benefits to the patient. This must also include a consideration of the alternative methods for obtaining the same or related clinical information.

Thyroid-protective collars should be used for all dental x-rays when they do not interfere with the examination. Thyroid-protective collars are not needed for screening mammograms.

The patient or the patient's decision maker should be made aware of the potential risks and benefits of radiation in a manner that is understandable to them.

Clinicians should be adequately informed about the potential risks of radiation and the general principles of radiation dosimetry, especially as they relate to children and the thyroid.


_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)


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СообщениеДобавлено: 31 июл 2012, 11:32 
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Недавно было опубликовано исследование, что КТ головы на обычном томографе у детей может способствовать развитию лейкемии и опухолей головы.

Цитата:
June 12, 2012 -- Radiation exposure from two or three head computed tomography (CT) scans in childhood -- giving a cumulative dose of around 60 mGy -- can triple the risk of developing brain cancer, while five to 10 such scans (cumulative dose around 50 mGy) may triple the risk of developing leukemia, according to a major study published online June 7 in Lancet.

Цитата:
Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study



Dr Mark S Pearce PhD a , Jane A Salotti PhD a, Mark P Little PhD c, Kieran McHugh FRCR d, Choonsik Lee PhD c, Kwang Pyo Kim PhD e, Nicola L Howe MSc a, Cecile M Ronckers PhD c f, Preetha Rajaraman PhD c, Alan W Craft MD b, Louise Parker PhD g, Amy Berrington de González DPhil c

Summary


Background

Although CT scans are very useful clinically, potential cancer risks exist from associated ionising radiation, in particular for children who are more radiosensitive than adults. We aimed to assess the excess risk of leukaemia and brain tumours after CT scans in a cohort of children and young adults.


Methods

In our retrospective cohort study, we included patients without previous cancer diagnoses who were first examined with CT in National Health Service (NHS) centres in England, Wales, or Scotland (Great Britain) between 1985 and 2002, when they were younger than 22 years of age. We obtained data for cancer incidence, mortality, and loss to follow-up from the NHS Central Registry from Jan 1, 1985, to Dec 31, 2008. We estimated absorbed brain and red bone marrow doses per CT scan in mGy and assessed excess incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours cancer with Poisson relative risk models. To avoid inclusion of CT scans related to cancer diagnosis, follow-up for leukaemia began 2 years after the first CT and for brain tumours 5 years after the first CT.


Findings

During follow-up, 74 of 178 604 patients were diagnosed with leukaemia and 135 of 176 587 patients were diagnosed with brain tumours. We noted a positive association between radiation dose from CT scans and leukaemia (excess relative risk [ERR] per mGy 0·036, 95% CI 0·005—0·120; p=0·0097) and brain tumours (0·023, 0·010—0·049; p<0·0001). Compared with patients who received a dose of less than 5 mGy, the relative risk of leukaemia for patients who received a cumulative dose of at least 30 mGy (mean dose 51·13 mGy) was 3·18 (95% CI 1·46—6·94) and the relative risk of brain cancer for patients who received a cumulative dose of 50—74 mGy (mean dose 60·42 mGy) was 2·82 (1·33—6·03).


Interpretation

Use of CT scans in children to deliver cumulative doses of about 50 mGy might almost triple the risk of leukaemia and doses of about 60 mGy might triple the risk of brain cancer. Because these cancers are relatively rare, the cumulative absolute risks are small: in the 10 years after the first scan for patients younger than 10 years, one excess case of leukaemia and one excess case of brain tumour per 10 000 head CT scans is estimated to occur. Nevertheless, although clinical benefits should outweigh the small absolute risks, radiation doses from CT scans ought to be kept as low as possible and alternative procedures, which do not involve ionising radiation, should be considered if appropriate.


Funding

US National Cancer Institute and UK Department of Health.


http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lance ... 40-6736(12)60815-0/fulltext#article_upsell

_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)


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Вот еще одно исследование, в котором обнаружена взаимосвязь между рентгеновскими снимками зубов и раком щитовидной железы...
Цитата:
Acta Oncol. 2010 May;49(4):447-53.

Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: a case-control study.

Memon A, Godward S, Williams D, Siddique I, Al-Saleh K.


Source

Division of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Sussex, UK. a.memon@bsms.ac.uk


Abstract

The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours.

METHODS:

To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +/- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait.

RESULTS:

Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity.

DISCUSSION:

These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)


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СообщениеДобавлено: 18 ноя 2012, 19:32 
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В сентябре в журнале Квинтэссенция было опубликовано исследование о том, что панорамные снимки обладают генотоксическим действием на клетки слизистой полости рта:

Цитата:
Pano x-rays have cytotoxic effect on oral mucosa
By Kathy Kincade, Editor in Chief


October 17, 2012 -- A growing body of evidence suggests that radiographs used in dental and medical practices can induce cytotoxic effects in the exposed tissue at the cellular level and damage DNA.
Now a new study in Quintessence International explores the genotoxic effects of panoramic radiographs on oral mucosa -- specifically gingival and buccal epithelial cells (September 2012, Vol. 43:8, pp. 719-725).

Researchers from the Maharishi Markandeshwar College of Dental Sciences and Research in India used a micronucleus assay test to assess chromosomal damage in the buccal mucosa and maxillary anterior gingiva,

"In the past, various biomarkers assessing metaphase chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and host cell reactivation have been used to determine the effect of ionizing radiation," the study authors wrote. "However, these methods were typically laborious and time-consuming or required a high level of expertise to accurately interpret the slides."

Micronucleus assays can be used to assess chromosomal damage and are commonly examined in routine cytopathologic preparations, the researchers added. In addition, micronucleus assay tests are simple, rapid, and do not require much expertise.

Statistically significant increase

For this study, the researchers analyzed the panoramic radiographs of 80 patients in two groups: Group 1 included 20 males and 20 females, ages 15-25 years; group 2 included 20 males and 20 females, ages 40-50 years. All radiographs were taken using an Orthophos XG 5 DS Ceph (Sirona Dental Systems) with these parameters: 64 kV, 8 mA, 14.1 seconds.

The mucosal samples were taken from the buccal mucosa and gingiva using a wooden spatula immediately before radiographic exposure and 10 days after exposure. For each subject, a minimum of 500 cells each from the gingiva and buccal mucosa were studied using blind analysis, for a total of 1,000 cells for each individual, both pre- and postexposure, at 1,000x magnification.

The researchers found a statistically significant increase in the micronucleus count of the gingival epithelial cells after radiographic exposure: 1.08 before and 1.6 after (p < 0.05). They also found an increase in the postexposure micronucleus count in the buccal mucosa, although it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Age also appeared to be a factor, they reported, suggesting that micronucleus frequency increases with age.

"Epithelial cells are easy to obtain and appear to be target cells for this particular x-ray exposure," they wrote. "The higher micronucleus frequency in epithelial cells obtained from the gingival can be explained by the direct exposure of gingival epithelium to x-rays since the radiation from panoramic radiography is directly absorbed by gingival cells."

The researchers suggest a need for larger epidemiologic studies to precisely quantify the risk of these effects, but also caution that radiographs should be taken with adequate protection measures and only when the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk.

"Although radiation-related effects from panoramic radiography are reduced compared with full-mouth intraoral periapical radiographs or radiotherapy, the results of this study show that genotoxic effects do take place," they concluded.


http://www.quintpub.com/journals/qi/abs ... notoxicity of digital panoramic radiography on oral epithelial tissues


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q1.jpg [ 216.9 KiB | 73186 просмотра ]

_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)
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В Оксфордском журнале "Анналы онкологии" было опубликовано эпидемиологическое исследование, доказывающее, что диагностические рентгеновские снимки зубов связаны с более высоким риском доброкачественных опухолей головы, но не злокачественных.

Цитата:
Ann Oncol. 2013 Feb 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Dental diagnostic X-ray exposure and risk of benign and malignant brain tumors.

Lin MC, Lee CF, Lin CL, Wu YC, Wang HE, Chen CL, Sung FC, Kao CH.


Source

Department of Nuclear Medicine, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung.


Abstract


BackgroundThis study evaluates the risk of benign brain tumors (BBTs) and malignant brain tumors (MBTs) associated with dental diagnostic X-ray, using a large population-based case-control study.Materials and methodsWe identified 4123 BBT cases and 16 492 controls without BBT (study 1) and 197 MBT cases and 788 controls without MBT (study 2) from Taiwan National Health Insurance claim data. The risks of both types of tumor were estimated in association with the frequency of received dental diagnostic X-ray.ResultsThe mean ages were ∼44.2 years in study 1 and 40.6 years in study 2. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of BBT increases as the frequency of received dental diagnostic X-ray increases. The BBT odds ratio increased from 1.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.44] for those with annual mean X-ray examination of less than one to 1.65 (95% CI 1.37-1.98) for those with three or more X-ray examinations, after controlling for comorbidities. No significant association was found between MBTs and dental diagnostic X-ray exposure.ConclusionsExposure to dental diagnostic X-rays in oral and maxillofacial care increases the risk of BBTs, but not MBTs.


http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/conten ... 6.abstract

_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)


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Вот еще одно исследование в котором была обнаружена взаимосвязь между рентгеновскими снимками зубов и акустической нейромой...

Цитата:
J Neurosurg. 2012 Dec;117 Suppl:78-83. doi: 10.3171/2012.5.GKS12615.

Are frequent dental x-ray examinations associated with increased risk of vestibular schwannoma?

Han YY, Berkowitz O, Talbott E, Kondziolka D, Donovan M, Lunsford LD.


Source

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.


Abstract


OBJECT:

The authors evaluated the potential role of environmental risk factors, including exposure to diagnostic or therapeutic radiation and to wireless phones that emit nonionizing radiation, in the etiology of vestibular schwannoma (VS).

METHODS:

A total of 343 patients with VSs who underwent Gamma Knife surgery performed between 1997 and 2007 were age and sex matched to 343 control patients from the outpatient degenerative spinal disorders service at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors obtained information on previous exposure to medical radiation, use of wireless phone technologies, and other environmental factors thought to be associated with the development of a VS. Conditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS:

After adjusting for race, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure to noise, use of cell phones, and family history of cancer, the authors identified only a single factor that was associated with a higher risk of VS: individuals exposed to dental x-rays once a year (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.01-5.09) or once every 2-5 years (aOR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.20-5.85), compared with those exposed less than once every 5 years. Of interest, a history of exposure to radiation related to head or head-and-neck computed tomography was associated with a reduced risk of VS (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30-0.90). No relationship was found between the use of cell phones or cordless phones and VS.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with acoustic neuromas reported significantly more exposure to dental x-rays than a matched cohort control group. Reducing the frequency of dental x-ray examinations may decrease the potential risk of VS.

_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)


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Проспективное исследование - дентальные рентгенограммы на 13% увеличивают риск рака щитовидной железы.

Цитата:
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Apr 15;177(8):800-9. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws315. Epub 2013 Mar 25.

A prospective study of medical diagnostic radiography and risk of thyroid cancer.

Neta G, Rajaraman P, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Doody MM, Alexander BH, Preston D, Simon SL, Melo D, Miller J, Freedman DM, Linet MS, Sigurdson AJ.


Source

Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, USA. netagil@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

Although diagnostic x-ray procedures provide important medical benefits, cancer risks associated with their exposure are also possible, but not well characterized. The US Radiologic Technologists Study (1983-2006) is a nationwide, prospective cohort study with extensive questionnaire data on history of personal diagnostic imaging procedures collected prior to cancer diagnosis. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to estimate thyroid cancer risks related to the number and type of selected procedures. We assessed potential modifying effects of age and calendar year of the first x-ray procedure in each category of procedures. Incident thyroid cancers (n = 251) were diagnosed among 75,494 technologists (1.3 million person-years; mean follow-up = 17 years). Overall, there was no clear evidence of thyroid cancer risk associated with diagnostic x-rays except for dental x-rays. We observed a 13% increase in thyroid cancer risk for every 10 reported dental radiographs (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.26), which was driven by dental x-rays first received before 1970, but we found no evidence that the relationship between dental x-rays and thyroid cancer was associated with childhood or adolescent exposures as would have been anticipated. The lack of association of thyroid cancer with x-ray procedures that expose the thyroid to higher radiation doses than do dental x-rays underscores the need to conduct a detailed radiation exposure assessment to enable quantitative evaluation of risk.

_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)


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Обзорная статья - авторы считают, что есть связь между ростом случаев рака щитовидной железы и внедрением компьютерной томографии.


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_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)
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Зарегистрирован: 07 фев 2005, 12:48
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Сайт: http://www.dental-revue.ru
Откуда: г. Тверь - Москва
Наибольший риск развития рака щитовидной железы после стоматологического КТ нижней челюсти - у женщин моложе 45 лет.+
Цитата:
J Dent Res. 2015 Jan;94(1):27-35. doi: 10.1177/0022034514554226. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Predicting cancer risks from dental computed tomography.

Wu TH1, Lin WC2, Chen WK3, Chang YC4, Hwang JJ5.


Dental computed tomography (CT) has become a common tool when carrying out dental implants, yet there is little information available on its associated cancer risk. The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime-attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence that is associated with the radiation dose from dental CT scans and to evaluate the effect of scan position, sex, and age on the cancer risk. This retrospective cohort study involved 505 participants who underwent CT scans. The mean effective doses for male and female patients in the maxilla group were 408 and 389 µSv (P = 0.055), respectively, whereas the mean effective doses for male and female patients in the mandible groups were 475 and 450 µSv (P < 0.001), respectively. The LAR for cancer incidence after mandible CT scanning varied from 1 in 16,196 for a 30-y-old woman to 1 in 114,680 for a 70-y-old man. The organ-specific cancer risks for thyroid cancer, other cancers, leukemia, and lung cancer account for 99% of the LAR. Among patients of all ages, the estimated LAR of a mandible scan was higher than that of a maxilla scan. Furthermore, the LAR for female thyroid cancer had a peak before age 45 y. The risk for a woman aged 30 y is roughly 8 times higher than that of a woman aged 50 y. After undergoing a dental CT scan, the possible cancer risks related to sex and age across various different anatomical regions are not similar. The greatest risk due to a dental CT scan is for a mandible scan when the woman is younger than 45 y. Given the limits of the sample size, machine parameters, and the retrospective nature of this study, the results need to be interpreted within the context of this patient population. Future studies will be of value to corroborate these findings.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022034514554226


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Комментарий к файлу: The lifetime-attributable risk (LAR) of various cancer incidences of organs from the scatter dose when the mandible or maxilla is exposed by a single dental computed tomography scan. (A) Thyroid cancer, (B) other cancer, (C) leukemia, and (D) lung cancer.
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_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)
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Американская эндодонтическая ассоциация считает, что компьютерную томографию -
Цитата:
не следует рутинно использовать для эндодонтической диагностики или скрининга при отсутствии клинических симптомов.


http://www.dental-revue.ru/index.php?page=03&subPage=02&artId=84


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_________________
"Знать - это одно; верить, что знаешь - совсем другое. Знать - это наука, но верить, что знаешь - это невежество". (Гиппократ)
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